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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
 
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2018
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
 
For the Transition period from                 to
 
 
Commission file number: 001-35444
 
YELP INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
Delaware
20-1854266
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
(I.R.S. Employer
Incorporation or Organization)
Identification No.)
 
140 New Montgomery Street, 9th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94105
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

(415) 908-3801
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES  ☒  NO  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). YES  ☒  NO  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  ☒
Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer  ☐       
Smaller reporting company  ☐
 
Emerging growth company  ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES  ☐  NO  ☒
As of July 31, 2018, there were 83,675,059 shares of registrant’s common stock, par value $0.000001 per share, issued and outstanding.


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YELP INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
Part I.
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II.
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
 
___________________________________
Unless the context suggests otherwise, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (the “Quarterly Report”) to “Yelp,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Yelp Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.
Unless the context otherwise indicates, where we refer in this Quarterly Report to our “mobile application” or “mobile app,” we refer to all of our applications for mobile-enabled devices; references to our “mobile platform” refer to both our mobile app and the versions of our website that are optimized for mobile-based browsers. Similarly, references to our “website” refer to versions of our website dedicated to both desktop- and mobile-based browsers, as well as the U.S. and international versions of our website.



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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Quarterly Report that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management, which are in turn based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Quarterly Report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A below. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
NOTE REGARDING METRICS
We review a number of performance metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends in our business, prepare financial projections and make strategic decisions. Please see the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Metrics” for information on how we define our key metrics. Unless otherwise stated, these metrics do not include metrics from Yelp Reservations, Yelp Nowait, Yelp WiFi, our business owner products or Yelp Eat24, which we sold as of October 10, 2017.
While our metrics are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations, there are inherent challenges in measuring usage across our large user base. Certain of our performance metrics, including the number of unique devices accessing our mobile app, are tracked with internal company tools, which are not independently verified by any third party and have a number of limitations. For example, our metrics may be affected by mobile applications that automatically contact our servers for regular updates with no discernible user action involved; this activity can cause our system to count the device associated with the app as an app unique device in a given period.
Our metrics that are calculated based on data from third parties — the number of desktop and mobile website unique visitors — are subject to similar limitations. Our third-party providers periodically encounter difficulties in providing accurate data for such metrics as a result of a variety of factors, including human and software errors. In addition, because these traffic metrics are tracked based on unique cookie identifiers, an individual who accesses our website from multiple devices with different cookies may be counted as multiple unique visitors, and multiple individuals who access our website from a shared device with a single cookie may be counted as a single unique visitor. As a result, the calculations of our unique visitors may not accurately reflect the number of people actually visiting our website.
Our measures of traffic and other key metrics may also differ from estimates published by third parties (other than those whose data we use to calculate such metrics) or from similar metrics of our competitors. We are continually seeking to improve our ability to measure these key metrics, and regularly review our processes to assess potential improvements to their accuracy. From time to time, we may discover inaccuracies in our metrics or make adjustments to improve their accuracy, including adjustments that may result in the recalculation of our historical metrics. We believe that any such inaccuracies or adjustments are immaterial unless otherwise stated.



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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
YELP INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017 (1)
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
389,416

 
$
547,850

Short-term marketable securities
413,946

 
273,366

Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $9,360 and $8,602 at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively)
78,452

 
76,173

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
20,621

 
15,700

Total current assets
902,435

 
913,089

Long-term marketable securities

 
25,032

Property, equipment and software, net
109,673

 
103,651

Goodwill
106,526

 
107,954

Intangibles, net
15,125

 
16,893

Restricted cash
22,166

 
18,554

Other non-current assets
42,299

 
40,428

Total assets
$
1,198,224

 
$
1,225,601

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
9,808

 
$
9,033

Accrued liabilities
52,469

 
73,665

Deferred revenue
3,668

 
3,469

Total current liabilities
65,945

 
86,167

Long-term liabilities
33,845

 
30,737

Total liabilities
99,790

 
116,904

Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)

 

Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.000001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized – 83,792,697 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and 83,724,916 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017

 

Additional paid-in capital
1,086,727

 
1,038,017

Treasury stock

 
(46
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(10,032
)
 
(8,444
)
Retained earnings
21,739

 
79,170

Total stockholders' equity
1,098,434

 
1,108,697

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
1,198,224

 
$
1,225,601

(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" ("ASC 606"), using the full retrospective method. Accordingly, the Company has recast certain amounts in prior periods presented. See Note 1 below for additional discussion.
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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YELP INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
2018
 
2017(1)
Net revenue
$
234,863

 
$
209,945

 
$
457,937

 
$
408,120

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)
14,708

 
18,056

 
29,440

 
34,970

Sales and marketing
120,653

 
104,921

 
240,294

 
213,450

Product development
52,789

 
42,088

 
104,282

 
81,959

General and administrative
28,583

 
27,042

 
60,590

 
54,208

Depreciation and amortization
10,509

 
10,662

 
20,537

 
20,813

Restructuring and integration

 
21

 

 
251

Total costs and expenses
227,242

 
202,790

 
455,143

 
405,651

Income from operations
7,621

 
7,155

 
2,794

 
2,469

Other income, net
3,424

 
864

 
6,028

 
1,594

Income before income taxes
11,045

 
8,019

 
8,822

 
4,063

Provision for income taxes
(341
)
 
(118
)
 
(404
)
 
(185
)
Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
10,704

 
$
7,901

 
$
8,418

 
$
3,878

Net income per share attributable to common stockholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.13

 
$
0.10

 
$
0.10

 
$
0.05

Diluted
$
0.12

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.05

Weighted-average shares used to compute net income per share attributable to common stockholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
83,769

 
80,996

 
83,792

 
80,422

Diluted
88,651

 
84,860

 
89,088

 
85,132

(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 using the full retrospective method. Accordingly, the Company has recast certain amounts in the prior period presented. See Note 1 below for additional discussion.
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.


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YELP INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
2018
 
2017(1)
Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
10,704

 
$
7,901

 
$
8,418

 
$
3,878

Other comprehensive (loss) income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(3,187
)
 
3,562

 
(1,618
)
 
4,633

Foreign currency adjustments to net income upon liquidation of investment in foreign entities

 
(29
)
 
30

 
(29
)
Other comprehensive (loss) income
(3,187
)
 
3,533

 
(1,588
)
 
4,604

Comprehensive income
$
7,517

 
$
11,434

 
$
6,830

 
$
8,482

(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 using the full retrospective method. Accordingly, the Company has recast certain amounts in the prior period presented. See Note 1 below for additional discussion.
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.


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YELP INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
8,418

 
$
3,878

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
20,537

 
20,813

Provision for doubtful accounts and sales returns
14,608

 
10,792

Stock-based compensation
56,539

 
49,699

Other adjustments
(1,911
)
 
267

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(15,208
)
 
(9,661
)
Prepaid expenses and other assets
(6,924
)
 
(1,421
)
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities
(15,325
)
 
1,472

Deferred revenue
203

 
484

Net cash provided by operating activities
60,937

 
76,323

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Purchases of marketable securities
(403,324
)
 
(124,855
)
Maturities of marketable securities
290,000

 
140,000

Acquisition of a business, net of cash received

 
(50,544
)
Purchases of property, equipment and software
(15,018
)
 
(4,079
)
Capitalized website and software development costs
(10,139
)
 
(8,030
)
Other investing activities
34

 
58

Net cash used in investing activities
(138,447
)
 
(47,450
)
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock for employee stock-based plans
16,221

 
19,354

Repurchases of common stock
(65,789
)
 

Taxes paid related to the net share settlement of equity awards
(27,953
)
 

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(77,521
)
 
19,354

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
209

 
548

CHANGE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
(154,822
)
 
48,775

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH—Beginning of period
566,404

 
289,518

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH—End of period
$
411,582

 
$
338,293

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF OTHER CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
 
 
 
Cash paid for income taxes, net
$
28,815

 
$
1

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NONCASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Purchases of property, equipment and software recorded in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities
$
2,294

 
$
1,398

Tax liability related to net share settlement of equity awards included in accrued liabilities
1,088

 

(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 using the full retrospective method. Accordingly, the Company has recast certain amounts in the prior period presented. Also as of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows (Subtopic 230): Restricted Cash," and recast the prior period presented. See Note 1 below for additional discussion.
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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YELP INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND BASIS FOR PRESENTATION
Yelp Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on September 3, 2004. Except where specifically noted or the context otherwise requires, the use of terms such as the "Company" and "Yelp" in these Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements refers to Yelp Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Yelp connects people with great local businesses by bringing "word of mouth" online and providing a platform for businesses and consumers to engage and transact. Yelp’s platform is transforming the way people discover local businesses; every day, millions of consumers visit its website or use its mobile app to find great local businesses to meet their everyday needs. Businesses of all sizes use the Yelp platform to engage with consumers at the critical moment when they are deciding where to spend their money.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") and the applicable rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2018 (the "Annual Report").
The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP, including certain notes to the financial statements and certain balances that have been recast as a result of the adoption of new accounting pronouncements. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements, except as follows:
Revenue from Contracts with Customers—In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" ("ASC 606"), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Revenue Recognition (Topic 605) and requires entities to recognize revenue when they transfer promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that the entity expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for such goods or services. ASC 606 also modified Subtopic Accounting Standards Codification 340-40, "Other Assets and Deferred Costs—Contracts with Customers," which requires the Company to recognize a deferred cost asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective method and, accordingly, has recast each prior reporting period presented. The Company's adoption of ASC 606 resulted in the following adjustments to its previously reported results (in thousands):

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As Previously Reported
 
Impact of ASC 606 Adoption
 
As Currently Reported
Statement of Operations—Three Months Ended June 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
 
$
208,864

 
$
1,081

 
$
209,945

Costs and Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
105,232

 
(311
)
 
104,921

General and administrative
 
25,961

 
1,081

 
27,042

Net income attributable to common stockholders
 
7,590

 
311

 
7,901

Basic net income per share
 
0.09

 
0.01

 
0.10

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statement of Operations—Six Months Ended June 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
 
$
406,187

 
$
1,933

 
$
408,120

Costs and Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
214,518

 
(1,068
)
 
213,450

General and administrative
 
52,275

 
1,933

 
54,208

Net income attributable to common stockholders
 
2,810

 
1,068

 
3,878

Basic net income per share
 
0.03

 
0.02

 
0.05

Diluted net income per share
 
0.03

 
0.02

 
0.05

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet—As of December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allowance for doubtful accounts
 
7,352

 
1,250

 
8,602

Other non-current assets
 
31,339

 
9,089

 
40,428

Retained earnings
 
70,081

 
9,089

 
79,170

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statement of Cash Flows—Six Months Ended June 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Provision for doubtful accounts and sales returns
 
8,859

 
1,933

 
10,792

Change in accounts receivable
 
(7,728
)
 
(1,933
)
 
(9,661
)
Change in prepaid expenses and other assets
 
(353
)
 
(1,068
)
 
(1,421
)
Statement of Cash Flows—In November 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows (Subtopic 230): Restricted Cash" ("ASU 2016-18"), which requires amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the total beginning and ending amounts for the periods shown on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted the standard effective January 1, 2018 and recast the prior reported periods presented. The impact to the change in cash and cash equivalents balance previously reported on the consolidated statement of cash flows is presentation only; changes in restricted cash were previously included within investing activities and are now included in changes to the total cash balance within the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normally recurring nature necessary for the fair presentation of the interim periods presented.
Significant Accounting Policies
Except as set forth below, there have been no material changes to the Company's significant accounting policies from those described in the Annual Report.
Revenue Recognition—The Company generates revenue from its advertising products, transactions and other services. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following criteria are met: the contract with the customer is identified; the performance obligations in the contract are identified; the transaction price is determined; the transaction price is allocated to the performance obligations in the contract; and revenue is recognized when (or as) the Company satisfies these performance obligations. The Company applies the portfolio practical expedient to account for contracts with customers in each category of revenue.

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Revenue is recognized net of any taxes collected from customers, which are remitted to governmental authorities. The Company does not typically refund customers for services once it determines the performance obligations of the contract have been satisfied, but will assess any refund requests from customers and partners on a case by case basis. The Company records an allowance for potential future refunds, which is estimated based on historical trends and recorded as a reduction of net revenue.
Advertising. The Company generates advertising revenue primarily through the display of advertising products on its website and mobile app. These arrangements are evidenced by either written or electronic acceptance of a contract that stipulates the types of advertising to be delivered, the timing and pricing. Performance-based advertising placements are priced on a cost-per-click basis, while impression-based advertising placements are priced on a cost per thousand impressions basis. The Company recognizes revenue from the delivery of performance-based ads and impression-based ads in the period of delivery, in each case net of customer discounts, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met. The Company also offers businesses premium features in connection with their business listing pages pursuant to fixed monthly fees, and recognizes revenue from such offerings over the service period, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.
The Company also generates advertising revenue through indirect sales of advertising products, such as through reseller contracts that allow partners to sell Yelp Branded Profiles to their clients and the monetization of remnant advertising inventory through third-party ad networks, and recognizes revenue in the period of delivery, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.
Transactions. The Company generates transactions revenue from revenue-sharing partner contracts, the sale of vouchers through the Company's "Yelp Deals" and "Yelp Gift Certificates" products, and, through October 10, 2017, Yelp Eat24 as a standalone product.
The Company's transactions platform provides consumers with the ability to complete food delivery and other transactions through third parties directly on Yelp. The Company earns a per-transaction commission fee pursuant to partnership contracts for acting as an agent for these transactions, which it recognizes on a net basis and includes in revenue upon completion of a transaction, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.
Other Services. The Company generates other services revenue through subscription services contracts, such as sales of monthly subscriptions to its Yelp Reservations, Yelp Nowait and Yelp WiFi Marketing products, licensing contracts for access to Yelp data and other non-advertising, non-transaction partnerships. Subscription revenues are recognized ratably over the contract terms beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is the date the service is made available to customers, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations. Contracts with customers can include multiple performance obligations, where revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price ("SSP"). The Company determines SSP based on the prices of the promised goods or services charged when sold separately to customers, which are determined using contractually stated prices. The various products and services comprising contracts with multiple performance obligations are typically capable of being distinguished and accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Estimates and assumptions include determining variable consideration, identifying the nature and timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, and calculating the SSP of performance obligations. The Company allocates revenue to each of the performance obligations included in a contract with multiple performance obligations at the inception of the contract. The Company applies the invoice practical expedient to depict the value transferred to the customer and measure of progress towards completion of its obligations. Because the Company considers contracts month-to-month, variable consideration is resolved at the time of invoicing, which eliminates the use of estimates in determining the transaction price. The Company does not consider the effects of the time value of money as the majority of the Company’s contracts are invoiced on a monthly basis, one month in arrears.
Accounts Receivable, Net, and Payment Terms—The timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. The Company records an accounts receivable balance when revenue is recognized prior to or at the time of invoicing the customer. Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type and the service being provided. For advertising services, the Company typically invoices customers on a monthly basis, one month in arrears, and payment is collected either at the end of each billing period or up to 30 days after the end of the billing period. For transaction services, the Company's commission fee on each transaction is collected either at the time of the transaction, or up to 30 days after the end of the billing period. For subscription services, the Company typically invoices one month in advance, and payment is collected at the beginning of each billing period.

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Allowance for Doubtful Accounts—The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts receivable. The allowance reflects the Company's best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. It is based upon historical experience and loss patterns, the number of days that billings are past due, an evaluation of the potential risk of loss associated with delinquent accounts and known delinquent accounts. When new information becomes available that allows the Company to more accurately estimate the allowance, it makes an adjustment, which is considered a change in accounting estimate. The carrying value of accounts receivable approximates their fair value.
Deferred Contract Costs—The Company classifies certain sales incentive compensation costs as incremental to obtaining the related contract. These costs are capitalized in the period in which they are incurred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected customer life of the associated contract. The Company uses a straight line basis as it expects the benefit of these costs to be realized uniformly over the amortization period. The amortization periods for contract costs, which extend up to 41 months, were determined based on both qualitative and quantitative factors, including product lifecycle attributes and customer retention historical data. For contract costs with amortization periods of less than 12 months, the Company applies a practical expedient to expense such costs as incurred. The Company assesses deferred contract costs for impairment on a quarterly basis. Amortized contract costs are recorded within sales and marketing expense on the consolidated statements of operations. Deferred contract costs are included within other non-current assets on the Company's consolidated balance sheets (see Note 8).
Deferred Revenue—The Company records deferred revenue when it has received consideration, or has the right to receive consideration, in advance of the transfer of the performance obligations of the contract to the customer.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Effective
In February 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, "Leases" ("ASU 2016-02"). The new guidance generally requires an entity to recognize on its balance sheet operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets, as well as to recognize the expenses on its statements of operations in a manner similar to that required under current accounting rules. The standard will be effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The new standard requires a modified retrospective transition for existing leases to each prior reporting period presented. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019 and is in the process of evaluating the impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and accounting processes in conjunction with its review of contracts. Based on ongoing evaluations, the Company currently expects the most significant changes will be related to the recognition of new right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the Company's consolidated balance sheet for real estate operating leases.
In January 2017, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-04, "Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment" ("ASU 2017-04"). This new guidance simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the new standard, entities will perform goodwill impairment tests by comparing fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The standard will be effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-04 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2017, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-08, "Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities" ("ASU 2017-08"). This new guidance requires entities to amortize purchased callable debt securities held at a premium to the earliest call date. The standard will be effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-08 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-07, "Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting" ("ASU 2018-07"). This new guidance changes the accounting for non-employee share-based payments to align with the accounting for employee stock compensation. The standard will be effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2018-07 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Principles of Consolidation
These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.

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Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates are based on information available as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements; therefore, actual results could differ from management’s estimates.
2. CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
Cash
$
135,288

 
$
283,085

Cash equivalents
254,128

 
264,765

Total cash and cash equivalents
$
389,416

 
$
547,850

Restricted cash
22,166

 
18,554

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
$
411,582

 
$
566,404

As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had letters of credit collateralized fully by bank deposits which totaled $22.2 million and $18.6 million, respectively. These letters of credit primarily relate to lease agreements for certain of the Company’s offices, which are required to be maintained and issued to the landlords of each facility. Each letter of credit is subject to renewal annually until the applicable lease expires. As the bank deposits have restrictions on their use, they are classified as restricted cash on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets.
3. FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Company’s investments in money market accounts are recorded as cash equivalents at fair value in the condensed consolidated financial statements. All other financial instruments are classified as held-to-maturity investments and, accordingly, are recorded at amortized cost; however, the Company is required to determine the fair value of these investments on a recurring basis to identify any potential impairment. The accounting guidance for fair value measurements prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value in the following hierarchy:
Level 1—Observable inputs, such as quoted prices in active markets,
Level 2—Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly, or
Level 3—Unobservable inputs in which there are little or no market data, which require the Company to develop its own assumptions.
This hierarchy requires the Company to use observable market data, when available, to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value. The Company’s money market funds are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using quoted prices in active markets. The Company’s commercial paper, corporate bonds, U.S. government bonds, agency bonds and agency discount notes are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because they have been valued using inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable directly or indirectly.
The following table represents the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (in thousands):

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June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Cash Equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market funds
$
219,182

 
$

 
$

 
$
219,182

 
$
217,838

 
$

 
$

 
$
217,838

Commercial paper

 
34,946

 

 
34,946

 

 
46,927

 

 
46,927

Marketable Securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial paper

 
201,988

 

 
201,988

 

 
138,412

 

 
138,412

Corporate bonds

 
94,640

 

 
94,640

 

 
69,926

 

 
69,926

U.S. government bonds

 
64,037

 

 
64,037

 

 

 

 

Agency bonds

 
52,954

 

 
52,954

 

 
78,913

 

 
78,913

Agency discount notes

 

 

 

 

 
10,989

 

 
10,989

Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
$
219,182

 
$
448,565

 
$

 
$
667,747

 
$
217,838

 
$
345,167

 
$

 
$
563,005

4. MARKETABLE SECURITIES
The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains and losses, and fair value of securities held-to-maturity as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were as follows (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
Short-term marketable securities:
 
Amortized Cost
 
Gross Unrealized Gains
 
Gross Unrealized Losses
 
Fair Value
Commercial paper
 
$
201,993

 
$

 
$
(5
)
 
$
201,988

Corporate bonds
 
94,860

 

 
(220
)
 
94,640

U.S. government bonds
 
64,060

 
2

 
(25
)
 
64,037

Agency bonds
 
53,033

 

 
(79
)
 
52,954

Total short-term marketable securities
 
413,946

 
2

 
(329
)
 
413,619

Total marketable securities
 
$
413,946

 
$
2

 
$
(329
)
 
$
413,619


 
 
December 31, 2017
Short-term marketable securities:
 
Amortized Cost
 
Gross Unrealized Gains
 
Gross Unrealized Losses
 
Fair Value
Commercial paper
 
$
138,412

 
$
1

 
$
(1
)
 
$
138,412

Corporate bonds
 
45,006

 

 
(41
)
 
44,965

Agency bonds
 
78,958

 

 
(45
)
 
78,913

Agency discount bonds
 
$
10,990

 
$

 
$
(1
)
 
$
10,989

Total short-term marketable securities
 
$
273,366

 
$
1

 
$
(88
)
 
$
273,279

Long-term marketable securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds
 
$
25,032

 
$

 
$
(71
)
 
$
24,961

Total long-term marketable securities
 
$
25,032

 
$

 
$
(71
)
 
$
24,961

Total marketable securities
 
$
298,398

 
$
1

 
$
(159
)
 
$
298,240

The following tables present gross unrealized losses and fair values for those securities that were in an unrealized loss position as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, aggregated by investment category and the length of time that the individual securities have been in a continuous loss position (in thousands):

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June 30, 2018
 
Less Than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Greater
 
Total
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
Corporate bonds
$
94,640

 
$
(220
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
94,640

 
$
(220
)
Agency bonds
52,954

 
(79
)
 

 

 
52,954

 
(79
)
U.S. government bonds
49,661

 
(25
)
 

 

 
49,661

 
(25
)
Commercial paper
14,949

 
(5
)
 

 

 
14,949

 
(5
)
Total
$
212,204

 
$
(329
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
212,204

 
$
(329
)

 
December 31, 2017
 
Less Than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Greater
 
Total
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized Loss
Agency bonds
$
78,913

 
$
(45
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
78,913

 
$
(45
)
Corporate bonds
62,927

 
(112
)
 

 

 
62,927

 
(112
)
Agency discount notes
10,989

 
(1
)
 

 

 
10,989

 
(1
)
Commercial paper
3,975

 
(1
)
 

 

 
3,975

 
(1
)
Total
$
156,804

 
$
(159
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
156,804

 
$
(159
)
The Company periodically reviews its investment portfolio for other-than-temporary impairment. The Company considers such factors as the duration, severity and reason for the decline in value, and the potential recovery period. The Company also considers whether it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the securities before the recovery of their amortized cost basis, and whether the amortized cost basis cannot be recovered as a result of credit losses. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not recognize any other-than-temporary impairment loss.
5. PROPERTY, EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE, NET
Property, equipment and software, net as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):

June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Capitalized website and internal-use software development costs
$
95,193

 
$
81,710

Leasehold improvements
78,366

 
74,236

Computer equipment
37,824

 
32,450

Furniture and fixtures
17,192

 
16,435

Telecommunication
4,332

 
3,996

Software
1,487

 
1,212

Total
234,394

 
210,039

Less accumulated depreciation
(124,721
)
 
(106,388
)
Property, equipment and software, net
$
109,673

 
$
103,651

Depreciation expense was approximately $9.6 million and $8.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and approximately $18.8 million and $16.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
6. GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
The Company’s goodwill is the result of its acquisitions of other businesses, and represents the excess of purchase consideration over the fair value of assets and liabilities acquired. The Company performed its annual goodwill impairment analysis during the three months ended September 30, 2017 and concluded that goodwill was not impaired, as the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value.

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The changes in carrying amount of goodwill during the six months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
Balance as of December 31, 2017
$
107,954

Effect of foreign currency translation
(1,428
)
Balance as of June 30, 2018
$
106,526

Intangible assets at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (dollars in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Net Carrying Amount
 
Weighted Average Remaining Life
Business relationships
$
9,918

 
$
(1,382
)
 
$
8,536

 
9.9
years
Developed technology
7,832

 
(2,816
)
 
5,016

 
3.6
years
Content
3,924

 
(3,638
)
 
286

 
1.3
years
Domains and data licenses
2,869

 
(2,104
)
 
765

 
1.8
years
Trademarks
877

 
(433
)
 
444

 
1.7
years
User relationships
146

 
(68
)
 
78

 
1.7
years
Total
$
25,566

 
$
(10,441
)
 
$
15,125

 
 
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Net Carrying Amount
 
Weighted Average Remaining Life
Business relationships
$
9,918

 
$
(896
)
 
$
9,022

 
10.3
years
Developed technology
7,832

 
(2,071
)
 
5,761

 
4.1
years
Content
4,005

 
(3,610
)
 
395

 
1.8
years
Domain and data licenses
2,869

 
(1,847
)
 
1,022

 
2.2
years
Trademarks
877

 
(287
)
 
590

 
2.2
years
User relationships
146

 
(43
)
 
103

 
2.2
years
Total
$
25,647

 
$
(8,754
)
 
$
16,893

 
 
 
Amortization expense was $0.9 million and $2.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $1.8 million and $4.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of June 30, 2018, the estimated future amortization of purchased intangible assets for (i) the remaining six months of 2018, (ii) each of the succeeding four years, and (iii) thereafter is as follows (in thousands):
Year Ending December 31,
 
Amount
2018 (from July 1, 2018)
 
$
1,765

2019
 
3,277

2020
 
2,402

2021
 
2,262

2022
 
1,045

Thereafter
 
4,374

Total amortization
 
$
15,125


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7. ACQUISITIONS AND DISPOSALS
Nowait, Inc.
On February 28, 2017, the Company acquired Nowait, Inc. ("Nowait"). In connection with the acquisition, all outstanding capital stock and options and warrants to purchase capital stock of Nowait — including the 20% equity investment in Nowait the Company acquired in July 2016 — were converted into the right to receive an aggregate of approximately $39.8 million in cash. Of the total amount of consideration paid in connection with the acquisition, $7.9 million is being held in escrow for a two-year period after the closing to secure the Company’s indemnification rights. The key purpose underlying the acquisition was to secure waitlist system and seating tool technology. The Company utilized an income approach to determine the valuation of the Company’s existing equity investment in Nowait as of the acquisition date. The carrying value of the Company’s investment approximated its fair value.
The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 805, "Business Combinations" ("ASC 805"), with the results of Nowait’s operations included in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements from February 28, 2017. The final purchase price allocation is as follows (in thousands):
 
February 28, 2017
Fair value of purchase consideration
 
Cash:
 
Distributed to Nowait stockholders
$
31,892

Held in escrow account
7,945

Total purchase consideration
$
39,837

Fair value of net assets acquired:
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,004

Intangible assets
12,670

Goodwill
25,959

Other assets
1,065

Total assets acquired
40,698

Liabilities assumed
(861
)
Total liabilities assumed
(861
)
Net assets acquired
$
39,837

Estimated useful lives and the amount assigned to each class of intangible assets acquired are as follows (dollars in thousands):
Intangible Asset Type
 
Amount Assigned
 
Useful Life
Enterprise restaurant relationships
 
$
8,500

 
12.0 years
Acquired technology
 
2,900

 
5.0 years
Trademarks
 
610

 
3.0 years
Local restaurant relationships
 
600

 
5.0 years
User relationships
 
60

 
3.0 years
     Weighted average
 
 
 
9.6 years
The intangible assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis, which reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are being utilized. The goodwill results from the Company’s opportunity to drive daily engagement in its key restaurant vertical by allowing consumers to move more quickly from search and discovery to transacting at a local business. None of the goodwill is deductible for tax purposes.
The Company recorded no acquisition-related transaction costs for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, and zero and $0.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, which were included in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.

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The condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 include $1.3 million and $2.5 million of revenue attributable to the Nowait product, respectively. The Company completed its integration of Nowait's operations into those of the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2017 and, as such, determining Nowait's contribution to the net income of the Company for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 is impracticable.
The condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 include $1.1 million and $1.3 million of revenue, and $2.4 million and $3.2 million of net loss, attributable to Nowait, respectively.
Turnstyle Analytics Inc.
On April 3, 2017, the Company acquired all of the equity interests in Turnstyle Analytics Inc. ("Turnstyle") for approximately $20.6 million, approximately $1.0 million of which represents compensation cost due to a continuous service requirement, and the remainder of which represents purchase consideration. Of the total consideration paid in connection with the acquisition, $3.1 million was initially held in escrow for an 18-month period after the closing to secure the Company’s indemnification rights. The balance remaining in the escrow fund was $3.0 million as of June 30, 2018. The key factor underlying the acquisition was to obtain a customer retention and loyalty product in the form of a location-based marketing and analytics platform that provides Wi-Fi as a digital marketing tool to expand its product offerings for local businesses.
The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination in accordance with ASC 805, with the results of Turnstyle’s operations included in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements from April 3, 2017. The final purchase price allocation is as follows (in thousands):
 
April 3, 2017
Fair value of purchase consideration
 
Cash:
 
Distributed to Turnstyle stockholders
$
16,648

Held in escrow account
3,093

Total purchase consideration
$
19,741

Fair value of net assets acquired:
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
30

Intangible assets
4,252

Goodwill
16,048

Other assets
250

Total assets acquired
20,580

Deferred tax liability
(450
)
Liabilities assumed
(389
)
Total liabilities assumed
(839
)
Net assets acquired
$
19,741

Estimated useful lives and the amount assigned to each class of intangible assets acquired are as follows (dollars in thousands):
Intangible Asset Type
 
Amount Assigned
 
Useful Life
Acquired technology
 
$
3,250

 
5.0 years
Business relationships
 
672

 
5.0 years
Trademarks
 
250

 
3.0 years
User relationships
 
80

 
3.0 years
Weighted average
 
 
 
4.9 years
The intangible assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis, which reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are being utilized. The goodwill results from the Company’s opportunity to expand its product offerings to local businesses through the Turnstyle marketing and analytics platform, which the Company renamed Yelp WiFi Marketing. None of the goodwill is deductible for tax purposes.

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Table of Contents

The Company recorded no acquisition-related transaction costs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018. Following the acquisition date, the Company recorded acquisition-related transaction costs of approximately $0.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017, which were included in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 include $0.7 million and $1.5 million of revenue attributable to Yelp WiFi Marketing, respectively.
The Company completed its integration of Turnstyle's operations into those of the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2017 and, as such, determining Turnstyle's contribution to the net income of the Company for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 is impracticable.
Following the acquisition date, $0.4 million of revenue and $0.6 million of net loss attributable to Turnstyle were included in the condensed consolidated statement of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2017.
Eat24, LLC
On October 10, 2017, pursuant to the terms of a Unit Purchase Agreement, dated as of August 3, 2017 (the "Purchase Agreement"), by and among the Company, Eat24, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company ("Eat24"), Grubhub Inc. ("Grubhub") and Grubhub Holdings Inc. ("Purchaser"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Grubhub, the Company completed the sale of all of the outstanding equity interests in Eat24 to the Purchaser (the "Disposal"). Immediately prior to the closing of the Disposal, the Company transferred certain assets to Eat24, which consisted of assets that were material to or necessary for the operation of the Eat24 business that were not then owned by Eat24. The Company entered into a Marketing Partnership Agreement ("Partnership Agreement") with the Purchaser concurrently with the Purchase Agreement. The purpose of the Disposal was to further capitalize on the Company's strong market position of connecting people with local businesses by selling Eat24 to the Purchaser, which has a strong presence in online and mobile food ordering, and entering into the Partnership Agreement, pursuant to which the Company earns a fee on all food orders placed through the Grubhub restaurant network, including Eat24 restaurants, that originate on the Company's Platform.
The Company received $251.7 million in cash at closing; the Purchaser paid the remaining $28.8 million of the purchase price into an escrow account, which will be held for an 18-month period after closing to secure the Purchaser's rights of indemnification under the Purchase Agreement and is presented on the Company's consolidated balance sheets as an other non-current asset (see Note 8). The Company received $1.0 million in additional purchase consideration on December 14, 2017 as a net working capital adjustment. As a result of the sale, the Company recognized a pre-tax gain of $164.8 million during the three months ended December 31, 2017, which is included in gain on disposal of a business unit in the Company's consolidated statement of operations, which is net of $0.3 million in Disposal-related costs. Prior to the Disposal, Eat24 was its own reporting unit and $110.8 million of goodwill associated with the Eat24 reporting unit was derecognized and included with the net assets disposed. The gain recognized on the sale of Eat24 decreased by $1.1 million to $163.7 million as a result of an increase in the net assets of Eat24 as of the closing date due to the Company's adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2018 (see Note 1), which related to the recognition of capitalized contract costs.
The Disposal was accounted for as an asset group disposal in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 360, "Property, Plant, and Equipment." The results of Eat24's operations are included in the Company's consolidated financial statements through October 10, 2017. The loss before provision for income taxes attributable to Eat24 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 was $4.6 million and $8.5 million, respectively.
The Company acquired Eat24 on February 9, 2015. The final disbursement from the escrow account created to secure indemnification obligations related to the Company's acquisition of Eat24 was completed in the three months ended March 31, 2018.
8. OTHER NON-CURRENT ASSETS
Other non-current assets as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Escrow deposit
$
28,750

 
$
28,750

Deferred contract costs
10,848

 
9,089

Other
2,701

 
2,589

Total other non-current assets
$
42,299

 
$
40,428


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The escrow deposit is the funds held in escrow related to the Disposal of Eat24 (see Note 7), which are being held for an 18-month period after closing (provided, however, that any amounts subject to unresolved claims as of the end of the escrow period will remain in escrow until such claims are resolved) to secure the Purchaser's rights of indemnification under the Purchase Agreement. The remaining other non-current assets are primarily deferred tax assets.
Deferred contract costs as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, and changes in deferred contract costs during the six months ended June 30, 2018, were as follows (in thousands):
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
$
9,089

Add: costs deferred on new contracts
7,023

Less: amortization recorded in sales and marketing expense
(5,264
)
Balance, end of period
$
10,848

9. CONTRACT BALANCES
The allowance for doubtful accounts as of June 30, 2018, and changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts during the six months ended June 30, 2018, were as follows (in thousands):
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
$
8,602

Add: bad debt expense
12,918

Less: write-offs, net of recoveries
(12,160
)
Balance, end of period
$
9,360

Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue, which is recorded on the consolidated balance sheets when the Company has received consideration, or has the right to receive consideration, in advance of the transfer of the performance obligations of the contract to the customer.
As of June 30, 2018, deferred revenue was $3.7 million, the majority of which is expected to be recognized as revenue in the subsequent three-month period ending September 30, 2018. Changes in deferred revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
$
3,469

      Less: Recognition of deferred revenue from beginning balance
(2,768
)
      Add: Net increase in current period contract liabilities
2,967

Balance, end of period
$
3,668

No other contract assets or liabilities are recorded on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

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Table of Contents

10. ACCRUED LIABILITIES
Accrued liabilities as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Accrued compensation
$
24,189

 
$
17,725

Accrued sales and marketing
6,644

 
3,458

Accrued tax liabilities
4,757

 
32,617

Accrued cost of revenue
4,626

 
3,022

Other accrued expenses
12,253

 
16,843

Total accrued liabilities
$
52,469

 
$
73,665

11. LONG-TERM LIABILITIES
Long-term liabilities as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Deferred rent
$
29,331

 
$
26,904

Other long-term liabilities
4,514

 
3,833

Total long-term liabilities
$
33,845

 
$
30,737

12. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Office Facility Leases—The Company leases its office facilities under operating lease agreements that expire from 2018 to 2029. Certain lease agreements provide for rental payments on a graduated basis. The Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period. Rental expense was $12.0 million and $9.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $24.0 million and $19.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company has subleased certain office facilities under operating lease agreements that expire in 2021. The Company recognizes sublease rentals as a reduction in rental expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period. Sublease rental income was $0.5 million and $0.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and 1.2 million and $1.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Legal Proceedings—The Company is subject to legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company currently does not believe that the final outcome of any of these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2018, a putative class action lawsuit alleging violations of the federal securities laws was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, naming as defendants the Company and certain of its officers. The complaint, which the plaintiff amended on June 25, 2018, alleges violations of the Exchange Act by the Company and its officers for allegedly making materially false and misleading statements regarding its business and operations on February 9, 2017. The plaintiff seeks unspecified monetary damages and other relief. Due to the preliminary nature of this lawsuit, the Company is unable to reasonably estimate either the probability of incurring a loss or an estimated range of such loss, if any, from the lawsuit.
Indemnification Agreements—In the ordinary course of business, the Company may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to customers, vendors, lessors, business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of breach of such agreements, services to be provided by the Company or from intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties.
Under the Purchase Agreement, the Company agreed to indemnify the Purchaser and certain related parties against certain losses arising out of Purchaser's acquisition of Eat24, including, but not limited to, any breach or inaccuracy of any representation or warranty made by the Company or Eat24 in the Purchase Agreement. The Company's indemnification obligations are subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, and are capped at the purchase price received by the Company in the Disposal.

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In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with directors and certain officers and employees that will require the Company to, among other things, indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors, officers or employees.
While the outcome of claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company does not believe that the outcome of any claims under the indemnification arrangements will have a material effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
13. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
The following table presents the number of shares authorized and issued as of the dates indicated:
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Shares Authorized
 
Shares Issued
 
Shares Authorized
 
Shares Issued
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.000001 par value
200,000,000

 
83,792,697

 
200,000,000

 
83,724,916

Undesignated Preferred Stock
10,000,000

 

 
10,000,000

 

Stock Repurchase Program
On July 31, 2017, the Company’s board of directors authorized a stock repurchase program under which the Company may repurchase up to $200.0 million of its outstanding common stock. The Company may purchase shares at management’s discretion in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, in transactions structured through investment banking institutions, or a combination of the foregoing.
The Company repurchased on the open market and retired 1,592,557 shares for an aggregate purchase price of $65.8 million during the six months ended June 30, 2018.
Equity Incentive Plans
The Company has outstanding awards under three equity incentive plans: the Amended and Restated 2005 Equity Incentive Plan (the "2005 Plan"), the 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (the "2011 Plan") and the 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the "2012 Plan"). In July 2011, the Company adopted the 2011 Plan, terminated the 2005 Plan and provided that no further stock awards were to be granted under the 2005 Plan. All outstanding stock awards under the 2005 Plan continue to be governed by their existing terms. Upon the effectiveness of the underwriting agreement in connection with the Company’s initial public offering ("IPO"), the Company terminated the 2011 Plan and all shares that were reserved under the 2011 Plan but not issued were assumed by the 2012 Plan. No further awards will be granted pursuant to the 2011 Plan. All outstanding stock awards under the 2011 Plan continue to be governed by their existing terms. Under the 2012 Plan, the Company has the ability to issue incentive stock options, non-statutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units ("RSUs"), restricted stock awards ("RSAs"), performance units and performance shares. Additionally, the 2012 Plan provides for the grant of performance cash awards to employees, directors and consultants.
Stock Options
Stock options granted under the 2012 Plan are granted at a price per share not less than the fair value of a share of the Company’s common stock at date of grant. Options granted to date generally vest over a three- or four-year period, on one of four schedules: (a) 25% vesting at the end of one year and the remaining shares vesting monthly thereafter; (b) 10% vesting over the first year, 20% vesting over the second year, 30% vesting over the third year and 40% vesting over the fourth year; (c) ratably on a monthly basis; or (d) 35% vesting over the first year, 40% vesting over the second year and 25% vesting over the third year. Options granted are generally exercisable for up to 10 years. The Company issues new shares when stock options are exercised.
A summary of stock option activity for the six months ended June 30, 2018 is as follows:

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Options Outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price
 
Weighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (in years)
 
Aggregate Intrinsic Value (in thousands)
Outstanding - December 31, 2017
7,078,932

 
$
22.70

 
5.56
 
$
145,613

Granted
680,200

 
43.55

 
 
 
 
Exercised
(500,005
)
 
18.17

 
 
 
 
Canceled
(68,239
)
 
51.31

 
 
 
 
Outstanding - June 30, 2018
7,190,888

 
$
24.72

 
5.58
 
$
117,184

Options vested and exercisable as of June 30, 2018
5,623,018

 
$
21.44

 
4.71
 
$
109,516

Aggregate intrinsic value represents the difference between the closing price of the Company’s common stock as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange on a given date and the exercise price of outstanding, in-the-money options. The total intrinsic value of options exercised was approximately $4.8 million and $5.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $12.8 million and $10.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The weighted-average grant date fair value of options granted was $24.09 and $14.61 per share for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $18.85 and $15.52 per share for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
As of June 30, 2018, total unrecognized compensation costs related to unvested stock options was approximately $24.0 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average time period of 2.6 years.
RSUs
The cost of RSUs is determined using the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. RSUs generally vest over a four-year period, on one of three schedules: (a) 25% vesting at the end of one year and the remaining vesting quarterly or annually thereafter; (b) 10% vesting over the first year, 20% vesting over the second year, 30% vesting over the third year and 40% vesting over the fourth year; or (c) ratably on a quarterly basis.
A summary of RSU activity for the six months ended June 30, 2018 is as follows:
 
Restricted Stock Units
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
Unvested - December 31, 2017
7,249,205

 
$
34.57

Granted
2,125,997

 
43.45

Released
(1,587,133
)
 
35.70

Canceled
(695,880
)
 
35.26

Unvested - June 30, 2018
7,092,189

 
$
36.91

As of June 30, 2018, the Company had approximately $247.7 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to RSUs, which is expected to be recognized over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.6 years.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended ("ESPP"), allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock at a discount through payroll deductions of up to 15% of their eligible compensation, subject to any plan limitations, during designated offering periods. At the end of each offering period, employees are able to purchase shares at 85% of the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the last day of the offering period, based on the closing sales price of the Company's common stock as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange on such date.

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There were 195,987 shares purchased by employees under the ESPP at a weighted-average purchase price of $36.42 in the three and six months ended June 30, 2018. There were 228,299 shares purchased by employees under the ESPP at a weighted-average purchase price of $23.73 per share during the three and six months ended June 30, 2017. The Company recognized $0.7 million and $0.5 million of stock-based compensation expense related to the discounted share price provided to employees under the ESPP in the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $1.3 million and $1.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation
The following table summarizes the effects of stock-based compensation expense related to stock-based awards in the condensed consolidated statements of operations during the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Cost of revenue
$
1,153

 
$
957

 
$
2,184

 
$
1,938

Sales and marketing
8,055

 
7,261

 
15,573

 
14,129

Product development
13,907

 
11,245

 
27,342

 
22,453

General and administrative
5,690

 
5,902

 
11,440

 
11,179

Total stock-based compensation
$
28,805

 
$
25,365

 
$
56,539

 
$
49,699

The Company capitalized $2.2 million and $1.7 million of stock-based compensation expense as website development costs in the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $4.0 million and $3.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
14. OTHER INCOME, NET
Other income, net for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Interest income, net
$
3,277

 
$
794

 
$
5,901

 
$
1,440

Transaction gain on foreign exchange
39

 
39

 
13

 
54

Other non-operating income, net
108

 
31

 
114

 
100

Other income, net
$
3,424

 
$
864

 
$
6,028

 
$
1,594

15. INCOME TAXES
Provision for income taxes for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Provision for income taxes
$
(341
)
 
$
(118
)
 
$
(404
)
 
$
(185
)
The Company is subject to income tax in the United States as well as other tax jurisdictions in which it conducts business. Earnings from non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax. The tax provision for the six months ended June 30, 2018 is due to $0.7 million in U.S. federal, state and foreign income tax expense, offset by $0.3 million of net discrete tax benefits. The tax provision for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is due to $0.1 million in U.S. state and foreign income tax expense and $0.1 million of net discrete tax expenses.

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Accounting for income taxes for interim periods generally requires the provision for income taxes to be determined by applying an estimate of the annual effective tax rate for the full fiscal year to income or loss before income taxes, excluding unusual or infrequently occurring discrete items ("Ordinary" income), for the reporting period. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, a discrete effective tax rate method was used in jurisdictions where a small change in estimated Ordinary income has a significant impact on the annual effective tax rate. The primary difference between the effective tax rate and the federal statutory tax rate relates to the valuation allowances on certain of the Company’s net operating losses, foreign tax rate differences and stock-based compensation expense. Jurisdictions where no benefit is recorded on forecasted losses were excluded from the consolidated effective tax rate. As of June 30, 2018, the total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits was $22.4 million, $21.5 million of which is subject to a full valuation allowance and would not affect the Company’s effective tax rate if recognized. As of June 30, 2018, the Company had an immaterial amount related to the accrual of interest and penalties. During the three months ended June 30, 2018, the Company’s gross unrecognized tax benefits increased by $2.0 million, an immaterial amount of which would affect the Company’s effective tax rate if recognized.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") was signed into law. The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that impact the Company's provision for income taxes, including, but not limited to, reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% (the "Tax Rate Reduction"), and requiring a one-time Deemed Repatriation Tax (the "Transition Tax") on certain un-repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. However, because the Company has a net cumulative deficit on the earnings and profits of its foreign subsidiaries, it is not subject to the Transition Tax.
Prior to the effectiveness of the Tax Act, the Company did not recognize a deferred tax liability related to un-remitted foreign earnings because such earnings were expected to be reinvested indefinitely. Although the Company is not subject to the Transition Tax, an actual repatriation from its non-U.S. subsidiaries could still be subject to additional foreign withholding taxes and U.S. state taxes. However, it remains the Company’s intention to reinvest the earnings from its non-U.S. subsidiaries. As of June 30, 2018, the Company estimates that it had $2.8 million of cumulative earnings upon which U.S. income taxes had not been provided. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability with respect to unremitted foreign earnings, if any, is not practicable.
In March 2018, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-05, "Income Taxes Topic (740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118" ("ASU 2018-05") to address the application of GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act. The Company's accounting for the Tax Act was incomplete as of June 30, 2018. For the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company did not make any measurement-period adjustments related to the Transition Tax and the re-measurement of deferred taxes and valuation allowance due to the Tax Rate Reduction previously estimated. Since ongoing guidance and accounting interpretation for the Tax Act are expected over the next six months, the Company considers the accounting of other areas of the Tax Act to be incomplete as the Company continues to gather additional information and evaluate the provisions of the Tax Act and the application of ASU 2018-05. The Company expects to finalize the analysis and record any adjustments to provisional estimates no later than one year beyond the enactment date in accordance with ASU 2018-05. Any subsequent adjustment to these amounts will be recorded to current tax expense in the quarter of 2018 when the analysis is complete.
In addition, the Company is subject to the continuous examination of its income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. The Company’s federal and state income tax returns for fiscal years subsequent to 2003 remain open to examination. In the Company’s most significant foreign jurisdictions — Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Germany — the tax years subsequent to 2010 remain open to examination. The Company regularly assesses the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes, and monitors the progress of ongoing discussions with tax authorities and the impact, if any, of the expected expiration of the statute of limitations in various taxing jurisdictions. The Company believes that an adequate provision has been made for any adjustments that may result from tax examinations. However, the outcome of tax audits cannot be predicted with certainty. If any issues addressed in the Company’s tax audits are resolved in a manner not consistent with management’s expectations, the Company could be required to adjust its provision for income taxes in the period such resolution occurs. Although the timing of the resolution or closure of audits is not certain, the Company believes it is reasonably possible that its unrecognized tax benefits could be reduced by an immaterial amount over the 12 months following December 31, 2017.

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16. NET INCOME PER SHARE
Basic net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock and, when dilutive, potential shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Potential common shares consist of the incremental shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options, shares issuable upon the vesting of RSUs and, to a lesser extent, purchase rights related to the ESPP.
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share (in thousands, except per share data):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Basic net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Net income
$
10,704

 
$
7,901

 
$
8,418

 
$
3,878

   Shares used in computation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Weighted-average common shares outstanding
83,769

 
80,996

 
83,792

 
80,422

Basic net income per share attributable to common stockholders
$
0.13

 
$
0.10

 
$
0.10

 
$
0.05

 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Diluted net income per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Net income
10,704

 
7,901

 
8,418

 
3,878

   Shares used in computation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Weighted-average common shares outstanding
83,769

 
80,996

 
83,792

 
80,422

    Stock options
3,071

 
2,807

 
3,143

 
3,132

    Restricted stock units
1,800

 
1,057

 
2,142

 
1,578

    Employee stock purchase program
11

 

 
11

 

        Number of shares used in diluted calculation
88,651

 
84,860

 
89,088

 
85,132

Diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders
$
0.12

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.05

The following weighted-average stock-based instruments were excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Stock options
1,724

 
2,197

 
2,034

 
1,974

Restricted stock units
659

 
3,657

 
604

 
2,418

17. INFORMATION ABOUT REVENUE AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS
The Company considers operating segments to be components of the Company in which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the Company’s chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The chief operating decision maker for the Company is the chief executive officer. The chief executive officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis, accompanied by information about revenue by product line and geographic region for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance.
The Company has one business activity and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations, operating results or plans for levels or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it has a single operating and reporting segment. Revenue by geography is based on the billing address of the customer.

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Net Revenue
The following table presents the Company’s net revenue disaggregated by major product line for the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Net revenue by product:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advertising
$
226,168

 
$
187,683

 
$
440,211

 
$
365,584

Transactions
3,520

 
18,435

 
7,359

 
36,500

Other services
5,175

 
3,827

 
10,367

 
6,036

Total net revenue
$
234,863

 
$
209,945

 
$
457,937

 
$
408,120

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, no individual customer accounted for 10% or more of consolidated net revenue.
The following table presents the Company’s net revenue disaggregated by major geographic region for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
United States
$
231,575

 
$
206,522

 
$
451,499

 
$
401,284

All other countries
3,288

 
3,423

 
6,438

 
6,836

Total net revenue
$
234,863

 
$
209,945

 
$
457,937

 
$
408,120

Long-Lived Assets
The following table presents the Company’s long-lived assets by geographic region for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
United States
$
107,537

 
$
100,990

All other countries
2,136

 
2,661

Total long-lived assets
$
109,673

 
$
103,651

18. RESTRUCTURING AND INTEGRATION
The following table presents the Company’s restructuring and integration costs for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Restructuring and integration
$

 
$
21

 
$

 
$
251

On November 2, 2016, the Company announced plans to significantly reduce sales and marketing activities in markets outside of the United States and Canada. The restructuring plan was completed by December 31, 2017. No additional expense related to this restructuring plan is expected. No goodwill, intangible assets or other long-lived assets were impaired as a result of the restructuring plan. There were no remaining unpaid amounts related to this plan as of June 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017.

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ITEM 2.       
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs, and involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of certain events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Quarterly Report.
Overview
As the leading local business review site in the United States, we offer consumers unmatched local business information, as well as a convenient platform on which they can discover, engage and transact with local businesses to meet their everyday needs. Our value proposition to businesses is simple: we provide the opportunity to connect with the millions of purchase-intent driven consumers through our ad products; messaging features, such as Request-A-Quote; our transactions platform; and our retention tools, such as Yelp WiFi Marketing, among other ways.
We derive substantially all of our revenue from the sale of advertising products. In the three months ended June 30, 2018, our net revenue was $234.9 million, which represented an increase of 12% from the three months ended June 30, 2017, and we recorded net income of $10.7 million and adjusted EBITDA of $46.9 million. In the six months ended June 30, 2018, our net revenue was $457.9 million, which represented an increase of 12% from the six months ended June 30, 2017, and we recorded net income of $8.4 million and adjusted EBITDA of $79.9 million. Our net revenue for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 was recognized in accordance with the new revenue recognition standard, Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" ("ASC 606"), on January 1, 2018. Although our adoption of ASC 606 did not significantly change our revenue recognition practices and policies, it impacted our previously reported net revenue, costs and expenses, net income, EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA, and our financial results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 presented in this Quarterly Report have been recast to reflect ASC 606 accordingly. Please refer to Note 1 in our condensed consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our adoption of ASC 606.
Our success is primarily the result of significant investment in our communities, employees, content, brand and technology. We believe that continued investment in our business provides our largest opportunity for future growth and plan to continue investing for long-term growth in our key strategies:
Driving Monetization. By June 30, 2018, the portion of our local sales force selling to new customers had fully transitioned to selling advertising plans without fixed durations (referred to as "non-term contracts"), leading to a new record quarterly increase in our paying advertising accounts and accelerating our paying advertising accounts growth rate for the fourth consecutive quarter. We plan to continue exploring ways to make our sales process more efficient and to improve our ability to attract and retain advertisers, including by extending support from our customer success team to advertisers on non-term contracts.
Strengthening Our Competitive Position in the Restaurant Category. Our restaurants category receives the most traffic and reviews of any category on our platform, allowing us to attract and retain a large consumer audience with relatively low acquisition costs and supporting our subscription and transaction revenue streams. In the three months ended June 30, 2018, food orders placed through our platform grew more than 30% compared to the three months ended June 30, 2017, demonstrating the benefit of our integration of Grubhub's restaurant network. In addition, the expansion of our Yelp Reservations product to new dining markets and our Yelp Nowait product to more restaurant locations contributed to the more than doubling of the number of diners seated through these products in the three months ended June 30, 2018 compared to the same period in 2017.
Generating Strong Usage and Engagement. Given the importance of the restaurants category, we are particularly focused on creating a compelling user experience to attract more new users and drive engagement on Yelp. In the three months ended June 30, 2018, we took advantage of our rich photo and review content to launch our Popular Dishes product, which shows users popular menu items, and our Collections product, which uses machine learning to provide users with personalized recommendations.
Building Out Our Home & Local Services Offering. Our efforts to increase the advertising inventory and optimize the pricing of our Request-A-Quote feature helped grow advertising revenue and ad clicks from our home & local services category — already our largest revenue category — faster than from any other category in the three months ended June 30, 2018. We plan to continue refining Request-A-Quote in the remainder of 2018.

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During the remainder of 2018, we expect to continue investing in sales and marketing, including the expansion of our sales force, and capital expenditures, including increasing our office space and upgrading our technology and infrastructure to improve the ability of our platform to handle projected increases in usage and to enable the release of new features and solutions. As a result of this investment policy, we expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase for the foreseeable future.
As of June 30, 2018, we had 5,400 full-time employees, comprising 5,265 salaried employees and 135 non-salaried support staff, which represents an increase of 11% compared to June 30, 2017.
Key Metrics
We regularly review a number of metrics, including the key metrics below, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends in our business, prepare financial projections and make strategic decisions. Unless otherwise stated, these metrics do not include metrics for Yelp Reservations, Yelp Nowait, Yelp WiFi Marketing, our business owner products, or Yelp Eat24, which we sold on October 10, 2017.
Reviews
Number of reviews represents the cumulative number of reviews submitted to Yelp since inception, as of the period end, including reviews that were not recommended or had been removed from our platform. In addition to the text of the review, each review includes a rating of one to five stars. We include reviews that are not recommended and that have been removed because all of them are either currently accessible on our platform or were accessible at some point in time, providing information that may be useful to users to evaluate businesses and individual reviewers. Because our automated recommendation software continually reassesses which reviews to recommend based on new information that becomes available, the "recommended" or "not recommended" status of reviews may change over time. Reviews that are not recommended or that have been removed do not factor into a business’s overall star rating. By clicking on a link on a reviewed business’s page on our website, users can access the reviews that are not currently recommended for the business, as well as the star rating and other information about reviews that were removed for violation of our terms of service.
As of June 30, 2018, approximately 151.1 million reviews were available on business listing pages, including approximately 34.5 million reviews that were not recommended, after 11.9 million reviews had been removed from our platform, either by us for violation of our terms of service or by the users who contributed them. The following table presents the number of cumulative reviews as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
 
As of June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Reviews
162,969
 
134,591
Traffic
Traffic to our website and mobile app has three components: visitors to our non-mobile optimized website (our "desktop website"), visitors to our mobile-optimized website (our "mobile website") and mobile devices accessing our mobile app. We use the following metrics to measure each of these traffic streams:
Desktop and Mobile Website Unique Visitors. We calculate desktop unique visitors as the number of "users," as measured by Google Analytics, who have visited our desktop website at least once in a given month, averaged over a given three-month period. Similarly, we calculate mobile website unique visitors as the number of "users" who have visited our mobile website at least once in a given month, averaged over a given three-month period.
Google Analytics, a product from Google LLC that provides digital marketing intelligence, measures “users” based on unique cookie identifiers. Because the numbers of desktop unique visitors and mobile website unique visitors are therefore based on unique cookies, an individual who accesses our desktop website or mobile website from multiple devices with different cookies may be counted as multiple desktop unique visitors or mobile website unique visitors, as applicable, and multiple individuals who access our desktop website or mobile website from a shared device with a single cookie may be counted as a single desktop unique visitor or mobile website unique visitor. In addition, although in some circumstances we use technology designed to block low-quality traffic, such as robots, spiders and other software, we may not be able to prevent all such traffic, and such technology may have the effect of blocking some valid traffic. For these and other reasons, the calculations of our desktop unique visitors and mobile website unique visitors may not accurately reflect the number of individuals actually using our platform at a particular time or during a particular reporting period.

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App Unique Devices. We calculate app unique devices as the number of unique mobile devices using our mobile app in a given month, averaged over a given three-month period. Under this method of calculation, an individual who accesses our mobile app from multiple mobile devices will be counted as multiple app unique devices. Multiple individuals who access our mobile app from a shared device will be counted as a single app unique device.
We anticipate that our mobile traffic will be the driver of our growth for the foreseeable future.
The following table presents our traffic for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Desktop Unique Visitors
73,939
 
82,998
Mobile Website Unique Visitors
72,328
 
74,101
App Unique Devices
32,062
 
27,987
We have discovered in the past, and expect to discover in the future, that portions of our desktop traffic, as measured by Google Analytics, have been attributable to robots. Because the traffic from robots does not represent valid consumer traffic, our reported desktop unique visitor metric for impacted periods reflects an adjustment to the Google Analytics measurement of our traffic to remove traffic that we have identified as originating from robots to provide greater accuracy and transparency. However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to identify all such traffic for any particular period. For additional information, please see the risk factor included under Part II, Item 1A under the heading “We rely on data from both internal tools and third parties to calculate certain of our performance metrics. Real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
Claimed Local Business Locations
The number of claimed local business locations represents the cumulative number of business locations that have been claimed on Yelp worldwide since 2008, as of a given date. We define a claimed local business location as each business address for which a business representative has visited our website and claimed the free business listing page for the business located at that address. The following table presents the number of cumulative claimed local business locations as of the dates presented (in thousands):
 
As of June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Claimed Local Business Locations
4,593
 
3,753
We regularly review our processes for measuring our key metrics, including claimed local business locations, for accuracy, consistency and to assess potential improvements. In the course of such a review, we recently discovered a software error that caused our reported claimed local business locations metric to be overstated for the third quarter of 2017 through the first quarter of 2018. We have adjusted the number of claimed local business locations we are reporting above as of June 30, 2018 to account for the error, and have corrected the error going forward. To provide greater accuracy and transparency, the adjusted numbers of claimed local business locations as of September 30, 2017, December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018 are (in thousands): 3,963, 4,156 and 4,378, respectively. For additional information, please see the risk factor included under Part II, Item 1A under the heading “We rely on data from both internal tools and third parties to calculate certain of our performance metrics. Real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
Paying Advertising Accounts
Paying advertising accounts comprise all business accounts from which we recognized advertising revenue in a given three-month period. As with our advertising revenue classification, paying advertising accounts excludes subscription services customers that are not also advertising customers. The strong growth in paying advertising accounts in the first half of 2018 was primarily due to our shift to selling non-term contracts in our local advertising business, which allowed our sales force to successfully sell our products to a broader range of customers, some of whom may not have purchased our products in the past because of the required initial term commitment.
The following table presents the number of paying advertising accounts during the periods presented (in thousands):

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Three Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Paying Advertising Accounts
194
 
148

Results of Operations
Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2018 and 2017
The following table sets forth our results of operations for the periods indicated and as a percentage of net revenue for those periods. The period-to-period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for the full year 2018 or any future period.
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
Amount
 
% of revenue
 
Amount
 
% of revenue
 
Amount
 
% of revenue
 
Amount
 
% of revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Net revenue by product:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advertising
$
226,168

 
96
 %
 
$
187,683

 
89
 %
 
$
440,211

 
96
 %
 
$
365,584

 
90
 %
Transactions
3,520

 
2

 
18,435

 
9

 
7,359

 
2

 
36,500

 
9

Other services
5,175

 
2

 
3,827

 
2

 
10,367

 
2

 
6,036

 
1

Total net revenue
$
234,863

 
100
 %
 
$
209,945

 
100
 %
 
$
457,937

 
100
 %
 
$
408,120

 
100
 %
Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)
14,708

 
6
 %
 
18,056

 
9
 %
 
29,440

 
6
 %
 
34,970

 
9
 %
Sales and marketing
120,653

 
51

 
104,921

 
50

 
240,294

 
52

 
213,450

 
52

Product development
52,789

 
23

 
42,088

 
20

 
104,282

 
23

 
81,959

 
20

General and administrative
28,583

 
12